What is irritable bowel syndrome?
Irritable bowel syndrome is an active gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction (constipation, diarrhea, or both), and related to urination (which may be reduced or worsened by self-discharge) in the absence of specific and unique pathology. In the past, IBS was considered a diagnostic test but in the meantime, its diagnosis is based on standard and possible pathogens and biological pathologies.
Is it a common disease?
It is a relatively common disease; human-based studies estimate its prevalence to 10 to 20 percent. The Nigerian national rate of IBS prevalence is 12.2 percent based on the Nigerian national survey report and the estimated Nigerian population in 2022 of 215,133,539, according to United Nations data, it can be estimated that more than 20 million Nigerians suffer from IBS.
Is it a genetic disorder?
It is not just a genetic disorder. Results from several studies on the role of genes in the development of IBS are limited and inclusive, but growing evidence points to at least a small portion of IBS genes. Relatives of patients with IBS are about three times more likely to develop IBS; greater concordance of IBS in monozygotic than dizygotic twins.
What are the signs and symptoms?
Symptoms and signs include abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, clear or white mucus (mucous membranes), epigastric discomfort or pain (dyspepsia), nausea, vomiting, and sexual dysfunction. Other dyspareunia (pain during sex) and loss of libido, urination frequency, urgency, menstrual pain, fibromyalgia (muscle pain), headache, back pain, joint pain, insomnia, chronic fatigue, dizziness, heart palpitations , anxiety and depression.
Abdominal pain should be present at the diagnosis of IBS. Pain is usually not in the wrong place, is spread without radiation, and can occur in any part of the abdomen, although it is usually found in the lower left abdomen. Wax, it shrinks, and can be viewed with food. The pain may be severe or relieved, and their onset is associated with an increase or decrease in the frequency of seating or loose or firm stools. Increased pain is life events or difficult life situations are common. Patients with IBS experience constipation and diarrhea, or a combination of these symptoms. This has led to an effort to classify IBS patients according to their prominent symptoms – IBS with constipation, which results in fluctuations in low-grade solid sewage complaints; diarrhea, a small amount of loose stools where urination is followed by urgency or constant relief; or a pattern of mixed chairs.
Those with the most common form of IBS constipation often complain of severe bowel movements of the lower extremities, pain relief or abnormalities. While those with diarrhea are more likely to pass urinary incontinence, their discharge is followed by urgency or regular bowel movements.
Can IBS be easily identified by the color, texture, and posture of a human seat?
The Bristol Stool Form Scale may be used to classify subtypes of IBS based on the seizure and position of the human seat when the patient has completed other IBS procedures. Type 1 is a chair with strong bumps as different as nuts. Type 2 is sausage-shaped but has bumps. Type 3 looks like a sausage but has cracks on the top. Type 4 looks like a sausage or snake; smooth and soft. Type 5 soft bulbs with clear edges. Type 6 looks like soft pieces with broken edges, as well as a mushy seat, while Type 7 is watery. Types 1 and 2 suggest constipated IBS, types 1 and 6 elevate IBS with a mixed bowel pattern, while types 6 and 7 elevate IBS with diarrhea.
How is irritable bowel syndrome different from diarrhea?
Diarrhea alone is not as serious as IBS. Symptomatic abdominal pain and its relationship to defecation should be present. Diarrhea may be one of the symptoms of certain types of IBS.
When should a person with irritable bowel syndrome see a physician?
A person with angry bowel disease should see a doctor immediately. Consultation with a gastroenterologist (doctors specializing in treating gastrointestinal disorders) is often necessary as symptoms often persist.
There are controversies that one should get rid of every week. What is your expert opinion on that?
Defecation once or twice a day and not less than three times a week is considered normal if stool consistency is normal. Note that stool consistency is very important as the passage of solid or loose stools indiscriminately is often considered uncommon.
Is relieving itself once every three days a course of concern and should people who experience this see a doctor?
Yes, vomiting three or more times a week is considered abnormal, therefore, bloating once every three days can be considered constipation, especially if the stool is consistently solid, which may be due to a low-fiber diet, IBS-D, primary or secondary. causes such as mechanical blockage, drugs such as paracetamol, aluminum antacids, anticholinergics, calcium supplements and diuretics. Such patients should consult a physician for a checkup, medical, and administrative training.
What are the causes of irritable bowel syndrome?
The causes of IBS are not clearly identified but are being studied in depth. Causes submitted include abnormal colonic profiles, post-infectious IBS-colonic muscle hyperactivity, immunologic and neural alterations of the small and large intestine that may persist after gastroenteritis, abnormal neuronal central processes, abnormal glutamate activation of glutamate -N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor. , activation of nitric oxide synthase, activation of neurokinins receptors and calcitonin-related peptide intake, abnormal limbic systemic sensory system, and hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factors in response
Diet and stress are said to be the cause. Is that true?
What foods cause IBS and how?
High-fat diets of oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols, found in high levels of other fruits such as apples, cherries and peaches; homemade sweeteners, legumes and vegetables such as broccoli, sprouts, cabbage and peas are fermented, producing high gases such as methane and hydrogen sulphide which cause symptoms of constipation, bloating and flatulence, and also have osmotic effects. , which may result in loose sewage.
Who is at risk for irritable bowel syndrome?
Those most at risk are women, people with pre-existing psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, or hypochondriasis. The most common risk factor for IBS is post-infectious gastroenteritis caused by protozoal, bacterial, and viral gastroenteritis. Other areas of affluent children, previous antibiotic use, food intolerance, family-linked IBS, birth defects such as young age, childbirth, and low birth weight.
Does IBS have psychological and social consequences for the patient?
Yes, it does. Attitudes such as depression, anxiety and somatisation (mental depression represented by symptoms) often occur in IBS.
What are the various medical tests a person with IBS may go through?
Extensive medical examination is usually not required in patients with direct IBS unless there are excruciating symptoms, symptoms that may indicate complications or the presence of serious illnesses such as cancer, vomiting, unexplained weight loss, unexplained vomiting. difficulty swallowing, IBD, celiac disease, evidence of low blood pressure, family history of malignancy, and new symptoms starting in age (50 years). Medical examinations may also be needed to rule out other possible causes or causes of symptoms, especially in rare cases.
Other tests to test hydrogen sensitivity to identify lactose intolerance or SIBO; bile salt malabsorption, detected by SeHCAT scan, is proposed to explain the symptoms of IBS-D in some patients although until recently, many studies examining the problem were reversible; celiac serology examination, colonoscopy, biopsy and histological studies may be helpful in diagnosing microscopic colitis in patients suspected of IBS-D. If any red flags are not present, a patient who responds to a dynamic IBS treatment test does not need any diagnostic tests, other than celiac serology. Those who fail to respond should be evaluated in more detail, depending on the symptoms.
Is irritable bowel syndrome treatable?
Yes. In some cases, IBS patients experience spontaneous improvement and symptom resolution over time, but in many patients, it is often recurrent.
How can it be treated?
It is important to educate patients first and then to confirm them. Patients often want to understand why their symptoms occur; they also want to get confirmation that their signs are real. High-soluble fiber diets can be helpful against constipation and inflammation of the stomach and gas fiber supplements should start with low doses and low FODMAP diets can significantly improve abdominal pain, constipation, chair frequency, consistency, and urgency.
Patients should eat small, regular meals. Exercise improves GI mobility and has been shown to improve IBS symptoms. Psychiatric therapy, hypnotherapy and psychotherapy treatments provide long-term efficacy in patients with antagonistic symptoms. Drug treatment depends on the type of IBS.
Are there certain foods that a person with IBS should avoid in order to reduce symptoms?
A person with IBS should avoid high-fat diets such as oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols as it may increase symptoms in some patients with IBS due to their fermentation and osmotic effects. They should also avoid unsaturated fiber, fatty foods and caffeine.
Are there any modern therapies currently being used by researchers?
Yes they are. Some drugs act on pain receptors and regulate visceral hypersensitivity. Others aim to go with the swelling. Other modern therapies that researchers are working on include bile acid sequestrants, bile acid transporter inhibitors and pancreatic enzyme supplements, but RCTs are limited.